How To Work In the Security Industry

Security work is a field that will never go away, and as we enter a world of higher rates of crime and a greater risk of security, people want to feel safer and more protected than ever before. But it isn’t just people that need to be protected, as more businesses look for security to protect their property, assets and people.

The role of a security operative in the security sector, whether that be a Door Supervisor or CCTV Operative has never been more in demand. If you’re interested in people and a tough but diverse role that offers challenges and flexibility, then this could be the perfect sector for you to work in.

What Is security?

Cambridge dictionaries online states that security is the ‘’protection of a person, building, organization against threats such as crime’’.

What Is the need for the private security industry?

The SIA, the Security Industry Authority states that ‘’a professional, dependable private security industry is needed to help protect people, property, assets and operations.’’

Security Is Provided In Three Ways

Manned - Where security operatives work on a site providing both a deterrent against crime and an immediate response to incidents as and when they occur.

Physical - Physical deterrents such as locks, barriers, grills to help reduce crime by physically stopping people.

Systems - Electronic and other technical systems to monitor premises for crime and other dangers, such as intruder alarms, fire detection systems and closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems.

What Roles Do Security Operatives perform?

Today approximately half a million people are employed in security roles in the private security sector. Of that half a million, the roles that exist within the security industry include:

While most security staff are supplied under contract from specialist security suppliers such as G4S and Churchill Security, there are also a considerable number who are directly employed and a smaller number who are self-employed. Security companies range in size from multi-national corporations operating across the world to small local service providers and can offer a diverse array of employment and work opportunities.

What Is A Door Supervisor?

A Door Supervisor carries out security duties in or at licensed premises. The mandate of a Door Supervisor is to prevent crime and disorder and keeping staff and customers safe.

Door Supervisors may have to assist in the following situations:

What Is A CCTV Operator?

The role of a CCTV Operator is to monitor the activities of members of the public in a public or private place using CCTV equipment. Identify a particular person. This includes the use of CCTV to record images to be viewed on non-CCTV equipment.

What Is A Security Guard?

A security guard is a person employed by a government or private party to protect the employing party’s assets from a variety of hazards by enforcing preventative measures. This can include operating in a retail environment or within a corporate structure.

What Is A Cash And Valuables In Transit Guard?

Cash and valuables in transit operatives take responsibility for guarding cash and other valuable property against destruction or theft during the secure transportation of that property in specially manufactured vehicles.

What Is A Close Protection Guard?

Close Protection is guarding one or more individuals against assaults or injuries that might be suffered in consequence of the unlawful conduct of others.

What Is A Key Holder?

A Key Holder is responsible for keeping or controlling access to, any key or similar device for operating (such as swipe cards etc) any lock.

What Is A Vehicle Immobilizer?

A Vehicle Immobilizer is a role that involves the moving of vehicles, restricting the movement of vehicles using a device and release vehicles after demanding or collecting charge.

What Are The Main objective Of Security Officers?

What Information Must A Security Operative Hold?

As per private security industry act 2001, Door Supervisor or Security Officer must contain the following information:

Who Are The Key Bodies Of The Security Industry?

The private security industry works with various organisations and key bodies to prevent crime and to help enforce the law.

SIA – The Security Industry Authority regulate the private security industry and are an independent body that are empowered by the Private Security Industry Act 2001 and reports to the Home Secretary.

Skills for security - A not-for-profit sector skills organisation. It helps raise standards and provides security related products and training.

NSI - The National Security Inspectorate are the security industry’s leading approvals and certification body. Conducts audits for companies providing home and business security and fire safety services.

BSI - The British Standards Institution are the UK’s National Standards Body. They develop national and international standards for companies in many sectors, including security and hold various standards for security industry such as BS7960 (DS) and BS7958 (CCTV).

The Police - Help police in everyday law enforcement to tackle crime and disorder. Local authorities use specific community partnerships to help reduce crime. Such communities may consist of police, private security sector and pub and club watch schemes. These initiatives can put security staff and police on the same page.

Local authorities - Provide security services at various buildings owned or managed by the local councils, and also help gather statically data.

Other associations - A trade association for the professional security industry in the UK. A membership body for individuals and companies working in security and associated roles.

Who are the SIA?

The Security Industry Authority (SIA), which was created under the Private Security Industry Act 2001, is an independent organization responsible for effectively regulating the private security industry across the United Kingdom in order to reduce criminality, raise standards and recognize quality service.

The SIA license was created to regulate the security industry and improve its image. It covers physical, manned security roles as well as CCTV surveillance. Licensing ensures that private security operatives are properly trained and qualified to do their jobs.

What Is The SIA’s Mission?

The Security Industry Authority’s mission is the effective, fair and efficient regulation of the private security industry by reducing criminality, raising standards and recognising quality service.

The SIA achieve this mission by enforcing the compulsory licensing of individuals and voluntary licensing of companies.

What Is The SIA’s Code of Behaviour?

Successful private security operatives are capable of doing a difficult and demanding job. They have integrity, manage change, and deal with problems effectively. They are aware of their own behaviour and how it can determine the outcome of events. They are achievers, able to work on their own to achieve their objectives. With the right attitude and commitment, a career in the security industry can be a satisfying and rewarding experience.

Personal Appearance - Wear smart and presentable clothing while wearing the SIA licence on the outside of clothing and ensuring that the photographic side is displayed (except when working as a store detective or CP).

Professional skills and attitude - Greet customers in a friendly and courteous manner. Act fairly and reasonably without any discrimination. Perform duties in a courteous and professional manner.

Display personal integrity and understanding. Use clear and clean language. Remain fit for job at all times whilst on duty. Develop knowledge of local services, amenities and other helpful information that may assist them and customers.

General Conduct – Not abusing your position of trust by accepting bribes. Not giving preferential treatment to certain customers. Not allowing your licence to be used by another. Not being under the influence while on duty. Not Possessing threatening items and using defamatory or abusive language. Security Operatives should fully cooperate with members of authority such as police, SIA or local authority and other statutory agencies while reporting all incidents and always following assignment instructions.

Employer values and standards - Be proactive by contributing to the company objectives. Take active part in the company culture and always comply with the company policies and standards.

What Should The Qualities Of A Security Operative Be?

Private Security Operatives should be:

What Is The Approved Contractor Scheme?

The approved contractor scheme is a voluntary scheme for companies seeking SIA approval. UK law requires the SIA to maintain the register of approved companies. This scheme is recognised by the police and members of the extended police family. The approved contractor scheme improves public confidence and promotes continuous professional development.

What Is Continues Professional Development?

Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is a continual process of improving the capability and realizing the potential of professionals in the workplace.

SIA Licensing and Enforcement

Licensing - “...ensures that private security operatives are fit and proper persons who are properly trained and qualified to do their job”

Getting Your Licence
Pay licence fee.
Offences under the Act.
Penalties in general

Licensing Laws

Licensing Act 2003

The Licensing Act 2003 was created to establish a single integrated scheme for licensing premises, which will include the supply of alcohol, regulated entertainment and late-night refreshment.

The Act is underpinned by four licensing objectives.

Licensing Act 2003

Licensing Objective
Changes under the Licensing Act 2003

The new Licensing Act 2003 has introduced major changes to the licensing laws in England and Wales:

Licensable Activities

Types of Licenses

Personal License.
Premises License.

Rights And Duties

Refusing Entry

A door supervisor’s main task here is the correct selection of customers for the venue: keeping undesirables out. If door supervisors can control the point of entry effectively, it will help to ensure the swift and safe entry of decent customers and at the same time enhance the safety of the public and members of staff inside the premises.

Ejecting Customers

Door supervisor may ask customers to leave at any stage if they breach any:

Offences relating to Drunk and Disorderly Behaviour

Section 143 of the Act creates offences committed by a member of the public who is drunk or disorderly. These are:

Note: The request can be made by any person who works at the premises, whether paid or unpaid in a capacity which authorises him/her to make such a request.


What Can Door Supervisors Accept As ID?

Acceptable form of proof of Age in the UK are:

Sale of Alcohol to Children
Allowing the sale of Alcohol to children under 18
Consumption of Alcohol by Children
Power of Magistrate and Police over License Premises
Gaming on licensed premises


Searching Premises: Before the opening of any venue, door supervisors should carry out an effective search of the premises. The purpose of this search is to check that:

Type of Search
Personal Safety
By doing this we avoid:
Refusals to Search
If someone refuses
Searching People and their Property
Offensive Weapons
Bladed or Sharply pointed articles
Power of Arrest

What To Do When Items Are Found

Door supervisors are most likely to come across weapons as they search potential customers at the point of entry. Having safely seized the weapon, they must either arrest the suspect for possession of an offensive weapon (indictable offence), and detain him pending the arrival of the police, or may just retain the weapon and simply refuse entry to the suspect.

Firearms/CS gas
Sulphuric Acid
Other Items
Dealing with seized/found property

Upon finding/seizing any property, door staff should follow the venue policies.

The policies may include:


Door supervisors must use their powers of search at the point of entry to prevent weapons and other undesirable objects from being brought into the venue. Not only can the weapons be used to cause serious or fatal injuries to the venue’s patrons, but they may also be used against the door supervisors, who may be called to a disturbance or a fight. It is illegal for door supervisors themselves to use any form of weapons during the course of their duties.

Recording Incidents And Crime Scene Preservation

Reason for Records
Types of Records
Type of Incidents and Calling the Police

The types of incidents that are recorded vary depending on the venue and it is up to individual door supervisors and their management as to what they decide to record. However, the types of incidents that may be recorded include the following:

Incident require the Police to be called
Incidents where other Emergency Services are required (Ambulance or Fire)
Incident Book and Pocket Entries
Using Pocketbook

“I keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew)

Their names were:

A reminder of what you need to make a note of, is based on the first few lines of the Rudyard Kipling poem, “I Keep Six Honest Serving Men …”

Rules of Using Pocketbook
Actual Entries

The Following list shows examples and is not a minimum and maximum to be entered:


A statement is a written account of what evidence a witness can give about an incident.

Statements are taken for the following reasons:

Use of Force Statement
Type of Evidence
Forensic Evidence
Preservation of Evidence

Principal of Crime Scene Preservation

Preventing evidence from being contaminated
Preventing evidence from being destroyed
Preventing evidence from being moved

What is an emergency?

An emergency is “An unforeseen or sudden event, sufficiently dangerous as to demand immediate action”.

Emergencies include:
Emergencies – Pepper spray
Emergencies – Serious crimes
Fire risk assessments and evacuation plans
Emergency Procedures
Business Continuity Plan

The Business Continuity Plan (BCP) is an essential part of any organisation's response planning. It sets out how the business will operate following an incident and how it expects to return to 'business as usual' in the quickest possible time afterwards.


Terrorism is the use or threat of action involving serious violence against people, serious damage to property, serious risk to the health or safety of the public, serious interference with or serious disruption of an electronic system.

Counter Terrorism

Terrorism may take many forms and can create threats to people, property and major disruption. A terrorist attack can take place anywhere so it is important that door supervisors remain alert at all times.

Ensuring a visible presence of vigilant security staff, and regularly patrolling the venue, will act as a deterrent and will also assist in reducing the opportunity for hostile reconnaissance to be carried out, and for explosive or incendiary devices to be left undiscovered. However, such measures must not compromise the safety of customers and staff.

Try to answer these six basic questions in relation to any observed unusual or suspicious activity:

National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO)
What to do when a terrorist attack happens
What should you tell the operator?

How To Communicate To Customers

Security operatives come into contact with the customers and colleagues on a regular basis therefore effective communication is vital. The element of the communication process includes the following:

The different types of communication include the following:

What are the common barriers to communications?

Blocks are anything that causes communication to break down or become difficult. Examples of blocks can include the following:

What Are The Principals Of Customer Care?

Beginning - Make a good Impression while showing that you are ready to assist and are willing to help.

Middle - Find out customer needs while getting all the information that the customer may need, followed by a satisfactory conclusion.

End - It is very important to leave the customer with a good impression of yourself and the company that you are working for or represent.

Remember the customers are all individuals that may have different needs and expectations and may be from different cohorts (cultures, religions, ages etc). Ultimately, humans are often nothing but the products of their experiences.

The different types of customer

Internal - Your Employer. Your Colleagues. Your contractual employer. Your contractual employer’s employee.

External – Visitors. Delivery personnel. Police/emergency services. Neighbours. Telephone Callers.

What does good customer service look like?
What does bad customer service look like?
How to maintain good customer service

The Three Types of Behaviours

Behaviour can be modified through training, thought and consideration of others. There are 3 types of behaviours:

Assertive Behaviour - State clearly what you want, feel and think. Acknowledge other people’s viewpoints. Be self-empowered. Be firm but fair. Be constructive. Be relaxed. Use clear speech. Be polite, positive and professional.

Aggressive Behaviour - Shouting. Finger-wagging. Glaring. Threatening. Using sarcasm. Giving orders. Interrupting. Blaming others. Putting others down. Making assumptions. Stating opinions as facts.

Passive Behaviour - Not making eye contact. Apologising a lot. Putting yourself down. Rambling speech. Backing down. Agreeing to anything. Having a quiet strained voice. Fidgeting. Always smiling.

Legislation Awareness

What does the law say?

“Security operatives play an increasing role in the fight against crime. Therefore, it is important to gain a basic knowledge of the law.”

Laws are important instruments to ensure that citizens comply with rules and regulations that are created by the state.

Laws are objective and allow/prohibit practices in a society, and in an event of breach allows the courts to deliver judgments.

There are two main types of law in the UK:

Criminal Law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It regulates social conduct and prescribes whatever is:

It includes the punishment of people who violate these laws.

Criminal Law (Examples)

Because of the severity of some of these offences, security operatives and other members of the public have powers of arrest.

Civil law

Civil law governs our daily lives. Civil law is a branch of the law. In common law countries such as England and Wales, civil law usually means non-criminal law. This body of law relates to civil wrongs as opposed to moral wrongs.

Civil Law (Examples)

Other Laws

Criminal Law: A branch of law dealing with offences against society. Door Supervisors can (in certain circumstances) arrest or use force against someone who has committed a criminal offence.

Common Law: The law of the UK which has been created over the centuries by judicial decisions as opposed to Statute Law.

Statute Law: Created by an Act of Parliament. Sometimes this has meant the creation of an offence where none previously existed – Possession of Offensive Weapons (1956) or possession of lock knives or blades without lawful excuse (1988)

Civil Law

A branch of law regulating relationships between private citizens. For example:

Trespass …is committed by a person who is improperly on someone else’s property without their consent. For example: When the open invitation to a licensed premise is withdrawn and the customer refuses to leave, he or she becomes a ‘trespasser’.

The Scott Sheard Case Study

Brief Facts

Scott Sheard and the Doorman Stuart Humphreys ended up in altercation outside the venue in October 2009. Stuart Humphreys punched Scott Sheard who collapsed. Scott Sheard was treated in hospital for brain injuries and was then moved to fulltime care. Scott Sheard died in January 2012.

Brief Facts

The punch had no justification. The punch caused (fatal) injury before Scott Sheard hit the ground.

Defendant’s case

There was no punch – it was a slap. The slap was a self-defence anticipating assault.

The Judgment

Justice Dove said he believed Mr Sheard was knocked unconscious by the punch and this meant he was “unable to save himself” when he hit the ground.

He said: “That was an extremely serious blow. You struck him hard and the jury found you struck him for no good reason.”

The judge said it was aggravated by the fact he was there as a doorman to ensure the safety of young people visiting the club and to act in the best interests of their parents.

Reasonable and necessary Force

Type of Assault

Common Assault - A person intentionally or recklessly applies unlawful force to another. For example: Spitting, pushing, slapping and poking.

Actual Bodily Harm - ABH is an indictable offence. Examples of injuries include: Broken or lost teeth, losing consciousness, multiple bruising, minor cuts and minor fractures.

Grievous Bodily Harm - GBH is an indictable offence. Examples of injuries include: Putting someone into a coma, visible disfigurement, broken or displaced limbs or bones, substantial blood loss, and any injury resulting in lengthy incapacity.

Grievous Body Harm with Intent - GBH with intent is an indictable offence. Examples of injuries include: Injuries under this section are the same as in section 20 GBH but there must be a specific intent to cause the injuries or to resist the arrest, and because of this intent the maximum prison sentence is up to life imprisonment.


Murder - Where a sane person causes the death of another person either by intending to kill or by intending to cause grievous body harm.

Manslaughter: - Where a person is killed unintentionally or the killer had diminished responsibility, or experienced loss of control at the time of killing, or was a survivor of a suicide pact.

Other Criminal Offences

Theft - Theft is an indictable offence. Theft is 'The dishonest appropriation of property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the owner of it. IE: Taking something belonging to someone else with no intention of giving it back.

Burglary: - Burglary is an indictable offence. The offence of Burglary is committed by: Any person entering a building or part thereof as a trespasser with intent to steal, commit criminal damage, or inflict grievous bodily harm on any person therein.

Aggravated Burglary - Aggravated Burglary is an indictable offence. Aggravated burglary is committed when a person commits burglary and at the time has with them any firearm, imitation firearm, weapon of offence or any explosive.

Robbery: - Robbery is an indictable offence. Stealing using force, or putting any person in fear of being subjected to force either immediately before stealing or at the time of doing so.

Criminal Damage - Criminal Damage is an either-way offence. Criminal damage occurs when a person without lawful excuse destroys or damages property belonging to another, intending to damage or destroy such property, or is reckless as to whether such property would be destroyed or damaged.

Obtaining Property by Deception: - It is an either-way offence. It is an offence for any person, by deception, to dishonestly obtain property belonging to another, with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it.

Obtaining Services by Deception - It is an either-way offence. It is an offence for any person, by deception, to obtain services from another. Deceptions are either-way offences.

Criminal Damage with Intent to Endanger Life: - It is an either-way offence. Criminal damage endangering life involves the person damaging or destroying his own or another’s property, with the intention of endangering the life of another, or being reckless as to whether the life of another was endangered by his actions. Making a threat to cause criminal damage, or criminal damage endangering life, is also an offence.

Offensive Weapons / Bladed and Sharply Pointed Articles - Both are either-way offences. It is an offence for any person without lawful authority or reasonable excuse, proof whereof shall lie on him, to have with him in any public place an offensive weapon. It is an offence for a person to have with him any article which has a blade, or is sharply pointed, in a public place without good reason or lawful authority. (This includes a folding pocket knife if the cutting edge of the blade exceeds 3”/7.62cm).

When the Law is Broken


The door supervisor may:

Other offences

The door supervisor may:

Arrest Procedures

Arrest - An arrest is: ‘…the taking or restraint of a person from his liberty in order that he shall be forthcoming to answer an alleged crime or offence.’

Arrest: A Last Resort

Following the guidelines in this module for effecting a lawful arrest will ensure that the door supervisor’s actions:

Limitation of Arrest
Section 24A PACE Arrest without warrant: other persons

A person other than a Constable may arrest without a warrant:

Where an indictable offence has been committed, a person other than a Constable may arrest without a warrant:

But the power of summary arrest conferred by subsection (1) or (2) is exercisable only if:

The reasons are to prevent the person in question:

Remember: A door supervisor has only the same power of arrest as a member of the public and could be accused of unlawful arrest.

Circumstance In Which To Arrest

Involving the Police
When to Arrest
Arrest Procedure

PACE Code of Practice Code G Note 3 states:

Arrest Procedure

The door supervisor should tell the person:

Use of Force
Following the Arrest

There is no need to ‘caution’ the suspect or to ‘read them their rights’, nor should door staff question the suspect about the offence. This should be left to the police, who will attend and take over the investigation.

Classification of Offences

Summary Offences.

These are minor offences which are tried in a Magistrates Court where the defendant is ordered to attend by a summons for matters such as Motoring Offences, Drunkenness, Common Assault and Prostitution.

Indictable Offences.

These involve more serious crimes. These are Kidnapping, Murder & Rape. A trial is held on indictment before a Crown Court Judge & Jury.

You CAN arrest someone for committing an Indictable Offence

Either-Way Offences.

Not all offences are Summary or Indictable. These are offences that can be tried either way such as Theft & Burglary. In certain cases, the defendant can opt for trial by Jury. There are over 700 offences of this nature.

You CAN arrest someone for committing an Either-Way Offence.

Breach of Peace

“any disorder or disruption to the peace in public or in private that results in violence, the threat of violence or provokes violence from another” is called breach of Peace.

Offences relating to Drunk and Disorderly Behaviour.

“any person who in any public place is guilty, while drunk, of disorderly behaviour, commits an offence”.

This offence is indictable only by the police.

Suspect Running Off

In the event of a suspect running away from the scene of a crime, a full description should be taken if possible. The Door Supervisor should make notes of such details as:

Sexual Offences

Security Action in Rape Allegations

Corroborative evidence of a recent complaint is very important in allegations of rape, as is the condition and state of mind of the complainant. If a person makes a complaint of rape to a member of the door staff, they should make a careful note of the time they made the allegation, the words they used, their demeanour, state of clothing and injuries.

There should be no delay in reporting the complaint to the Police and the scene of the alleged crime should be protected so as to preserve evidence. The clothing of the complainant and any suspect who is detained should also be preserved as evidence, and neither party should be allowed to “clean up” or visit the lavatory unless absolutely essential.

The Human Rights Act

The European convention on Human Rights was drafted after the end of WWII. In the UK we signed up to it in 1950s, and it is now fully incorporated in our domestic system through Human Rights Act 1998.

Essentially, we are all entitled to the basic rights and freedoms.

Security operatives have human rights but the nature of our job and the expectations associated with it requires us to take extra care to ensure that our customers’ human rights are not violated.

The rights and freedoms

A Human Rights Act Case Study

Steven, a door supervisor, was working in ABC nightclub where he faced following situation:

How many human rights are potentially violated on this case study?

The Data Protection Act of 1998

An Act to make new provision for the regulation of the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information.

‘The Data Protection Act controls how your personal information is used by organisations, businesses or the government.’

All those who are responsible for using data must follow strict rules called data protection principles.

Principal of Data Protection

Controlling data definitions

Data subject - Means an individual who is the subject of personal data

Data controller - Means a person who (either alone or jointly or in common with other persons) determines the purposes for which and the manner in which any personal data are, or are to be, processed.

Data processor - In relation to personal data, means any person (other than an employee of the data controller) who processes the data on behalf of the data controller.

What is prejudice?

Prejudice is (usually hostile) prejudgment, or forming an opinion before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case.

A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing because of their association with a particular group.

Security operatives rely on the public for support and confidence.

Prejudices and stereotyping must not be used to discriminate.

It is important to remain impartial and reasonable at all times.

The Equality Act 2010

This Act brings together several separate pieces of legislation and repeals the following:

The following Acts have also been revoked by the Equality Act 2010:

What Are Protected Characteristics?

Do not discriminate, directly or indirectly on the grounds of:

Key Definitions

Discrimination - Where a person is treated less favourably than another because of a protected characteristic.

Associative Discrimination - Direct discrimination against someone because they associate with another person who possesses a protected characteristic.

Example: - Bill is a shift supervisor and is looking forward to a promotion that was discussed with the regional manager last month. However, after Bill tells his boss that his wife has had a stroke, the promotion is withdrawn. This could be discrimination against Bill because of his association with a disabled person.

Indirect Discrimination - This means applying the same conditions to everyone but where the proportion of a certain protected group who can comply with the condition is smaller.

Indirect Discrimination - This means applying the same conditions to everyone but where the proportion of a certain protected group who can comply with the condition is smaller.

Example: - An employer insisting that all employees work ‘normal office hours’ which would discriminate against women, as more women are the primary child carers. Proportionately, the percentage of women able to comply with the condition would be less and so this would be a case of indirect discrimination.

Harassment - Harassment is “unwanted conduct related to a relevant protected characteristic, which has the purpose or effect of violating an individual’s dignity or creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment for that individual.” Employees will now be able to complain of behaviour that they find offensive even if it is not directed at them.

Example: - Tom is in the staff canteen and overhears a conversation about plastic surgery. The conversation leads onto talking about surgery on a particular part of the body. Tom finds this conversation offensive and has a right to make a complaint, even though the conversation is not directed towards him.

Victimisation - A person is victimised or in some way treated unfavourably because they are in involved in proceedings under the Equality Act 2010. For example: they may have logged a complaint or may be a witness in such a case.

Vicarious Liability - Vicarious liability refers to a situation where someone is held responsible for the actions or omissions of another person. In a workplace context, an employer can be liable for the acts or omissions of its employees, provided it can be shown that they took place in the course of their employment.

ABC Nightclub features a formal policy of not allowing Liverpool United football club supporters. Another provision on the policy also stipulates that customers with short hair allowed only.

A Protected Characteristics Case Study

Steven, the door supervisor, denied Luke (a Liverpudlian, who also had plastic surgery done to repair his left ear) an entry because of his association with the club. He also denied entry to Stacey who was with Luke. Upon enquiring as to why she is denied the entry, Vincent (another door supervisor) laughed loudly and said “For all I care, this chap’s condition might be contagious.”

After turning away Luke, Steven and Vicky (another door supervisor) started to laugh about Luke’s apparent plastic surgery. Harris overheard that conversation and found it offensive due to his own plastic surgery.

Gender Equality

Produce and publish an equality scheme stating their gender equality targets and how they plan to meet them. Gender Equality Schemes will need to be reviewed at least every three years.

Monitor and review their progress against their targets. Devise, publish and regularly review an equal pay policy stating how they plan to deal with promotion, development and career segregation.

Carry out and publish gender impact assessments of all legislation and major changes in policy and procedure and publish findings.

Option Available when Law is Broken:

Health & Safety

According to Health and Safety Executive (HSE) figures:

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

An enabling act that which allows for the overriding of previous Acts and makes provision for additional Acts and Regulations.

The purpose of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 is to provide the legislative framework to promote, stimulate and encourage high standards of occupational health and safety within the workplace.

Who is covered by the Act?
Responsibilities of Employers

Under the Act, Employers must provide:

Consultation with employees
Responsibilities of Employees

Under the act, employees must:

Responsibilities of Self-Employed
Summary of a security operatives’ responsibilities
Summary of a security operatives’ responsibilities

Duty of Care

Common Law - The notion of Duty of Care is derived from the Common Law.

Penalties - Company owners, directors, managers and employees can receive penalties of up to two years imprisonment and/or unlimited fines for serious breaching the H&S laws

Hazards and Risks


Hazard - Anything that has the potential to cause harm.

Risk - The chance, great or small, that harm could happen in certain circumstances.

Typical hazards

It would be impossible to list every type of hazard in any establishment.

However, some typical hazards are:

Risk Assessments

Risk Assessments involve:

After a Risk Assessment, action must be taken to either:

Precautions against HIV, Hepatitis and other Infectious Diseases

Lone Workers

Lone workers are those who work by themselves without close or direct supervision.

To protect the lone workers, the employers should consider following questions:

Spillage Procedures

Never take chances with hazardous chemicals. In the event of a spillage or leak avoid physical contact with the liquid and, if necessary, evacuate the area or premises. It is essential that private security operatives make themselves fully aware of the establishment’s evacuation procedures and the role that they will take.

Cost of Accidents
Violence towards staff
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992

Manual handling is any transporting or supporting of a load, including lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving of a load. This can also include first aid casualties, drunk customers, physically ejecting people from premises and sites.

Unsafe manual handling practices can lead to:

Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992

Before lifting consider:

What is RIDDOR?

The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 2013, often known by the acronym RIDDOR, is a 2013 statutory instrument of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It regulates the statutory obligation to report deaths, injuries, diseases and "dangerous occurrences", including near misses, that take place at work or in connection with work.

Reporting of accidents and ill health at work is a legal requirement

Who should report an incident?

Premises must ensure that:

Signs display the international “No Smoking” symbol.

Penalties for Infringement:

Anti-Smoking signs – Wales
Electronic Cigarettes

Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007

As of 6th April 2008, government bodies, organisations and companies will be liable for prosecution under the Corporate manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 and will face large fines if they are found to have caused death due to gross health and safety failings.

Typical hazards

As a security operative you may need to use following equipment:

Fire Prevention

What Are The Three Elements Of Fire?

The following should be in place in every working environment:
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 – Applicable to England and Wales only
Summary of terms
Classification of Fire

Fire falls into five classes:


All Fire Extinguishers manufactured after January 1st 1997 are entirely RED but may have a coloured panel on the label to identify its type.

Key points for using Fire Extinguishers
Other Fire Fighting Equipment
On Discovering a Fire

If a security officer discovers a fire, the following procedure should be followed:

Emergency Awareness

What is an emergency?

“An unforeseen or sudden event, sufficiently dangerous as to demand immediate action”

Types of emergency & action to be taken
How To Be Prepared In Case Of An Emergency

By being aware of the items listed above, you will be able to plan and prepare to prevent poor performance.

How To Deal With An Emergency

When an incident has been reported, remember the 4C’s:

First aid incidents

Where staff or visitors/customers are injured or become ill, they should be dealt with by a trained first-aider. In serious incidents, an ambulance should be called.

Serious crimes

If they occur on site, they would normally be dealt with by calling the police while containing any suspects. Crime scene preservation must also be considered.

Bomb threats

Bomb threats and suspicious packages must be dealt with seriously, by:

Telephone Bomb Threats



Emergency Telephone Calls

Dial 999 or 112 and ask to speak to the emergency services operator.

What should you tell the operator?
In The Event Of An Evacuation
Evacuation Do’s & Don’t


Appropriate Responses To Situations Requiring First Aid

“The assistance or treatment given to a casualty for any injury or sudden illness, before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor or other qualified person.”

The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 enforce the condition on employers to provide adequate and appropriate equipment, facilities and personnel to enable first aid to be given to their employees, visitors or customers if they are injured or become ill. Failure to provide first aid could result in serious injury or death. It is therefore vitally important that anyone injured or ill receives attention as soon as possible.

First Aid Provisions

The minimum first aid provision of any workplace is:

The main aims of First Aid are to:
Employers must provide:
First Aid action
First Aid priorities
Your responsibilities
First Aid kits must be:

The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971

The Public Entertainment Licenses (Drug Misuse) Act 1997

The legislation stresses the importance for door supervisors to take an active role in the fight against drugs on licensed premises.

New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) Temporary class drugs

A new means by which the substances causing sufficient problems can be temporarily brought under the drugs Legislation. The experts will then make the full assessment. Until then the drug will be treated as Temporary Class Drug (TCD).

Main Offences


MDMA - Known by a variety of street names such as the commonly-named Ecstasy or E, XTC, New Yorkers, Love Hearts, Doves, Rhubarb and Custard, Dennis the Menace and Disco Burgers.

Yaba - Known by a variety of street names such as Crazy Medicine and Hitler’s Drug. It was originally created by the Germans during WW2 to allow troops to fight around the clock. Users can stay up for up to 4 days at a time. It’s ILLEGAL in most other countries but in the UK, it’s still awaiting official classification.

Amphethamine - Known most commonly as Speed, and also Upper, Whizz, Sulph or Sulphate. Amphetamine is most often sold as a white or off-white powder.

Cocaine and Crack - Also known as Coke, Charlie, Snow, Base, Stardust and Flake. Cocaine is sold as a white powder and is usually sniffed but can be smoked. Crack, a very powerful form of cocaine, comes as small crystals and is smoked - it is especially dangerous because people can become dependent on it very quickly.

Viagra - Also known as Poke, Shagwell and Grandad Special. Originally produced to combat impotency, this drug which is blue in colour and diamond shape, has hit the clubbing scene in a big way. Viagra is yet to be fully licensed within the UK, although it is available on prescription.

Heroin - Also known as Junk, Smack, Gear, Scag and Heroin comes as a light brown powder. Very occasionally it might be white It can be injected, sniffed or smoked.

Rohypnol (Flunitrazepam) - Also known as Roofie and the Date Rape Drug Rohypnol is a powerful tranquilliser legally available over the counter in many countries, but not in the UK. It’s prescribed to people with chronic insomnia and who don’t respond to other drugs first. Usually this drug is administered through spiked drinks and is used by rapists to overcome their victims.

Tranquillisers - Also known as Tranx, Benzo’s, Eggs, Jellies and Norries. Tranquillisers such as diazepam (valium), chlordiazepoxide (librium), lorazepam (ativan) and temazepam are often prescribed by doctors for people who are having difficulty sleeping or are feeling very anxious.

Methadone - Methadone is used to treat people who have become dependant on opiates like heroin. It is taken orally and comes as a green, blue or yellowish liquid in a small bottle or clear plastic tub. Methadone is also occasionally misused and is often injected.

Volatile Substances (including Solvents) - The big problem with volatile substances is that they are so easily available and most of them are not illegal. Lots of things normally kept in the house, such as solvent-based glues, lighter fuel and cleaning agents and aerosols, have been inhaled by young people trying to get high.

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) - Also known as Acid and Trips. Acid is normally sold in small amounts which have been soaked into blotting paper printed with various designs. When a person takes it, they have hallucinations. The way they see, hear and feel the world around them changes.

Cannabis - Also known as Dope, Draw, Shit, Smoke, Ganja, Weed, Grass and Hash. Grass is the dried leaves of the cannabis plant and the other names refer to the resin or oil. It is usually mixed with tobacco and smoked in a ‘joint’ or ‘spliff’, but is also smoked with tobacco pipes.

Psilocybin/ Magic Mushrooms - Also known as Mushies, these mushrooms grow wild and are usually collected in the autumn. They are mostly dried and eaten or sometimes diluted with water to make ‘mushroom tea’. It is illegal to pick, process, possess or supply Magic Mushrooms.

Psychoactive Substances (Recently Classified)

Synthetic Cannabinoids - aka ‘Spice’ or other similar products were classified as Class B by means of a generic definition under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 from 23rd December 2009.

Benzylpiperazine (BZP) and related Piperazines - were classified as Class C drugs by means of a generic definition under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 from 23rd December 2009.

GHB and GBL - were classified as Class C drugs for human consumption under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 from 23rd December 2009.

Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) - and a range of other cathinone derivatives were classified as Class B drugs under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 from 16th April 2010.

Naphyrone - was classified as Class B drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 from 23rd July 2010.

The Door Supervisor’s Responsibility for Drug-Users

The main responsibilities imposed on the door supervisor are:
Dealing with Customers found in Possession of Drugs

The main responsibilities imposed on the door supervisor are:

Procedure for Handling Seized Drugs

Once any drugs are seized, door staff:

Possible Indicators of Drug Abuse (fellow colleague)

The following signs may indicate that a fellow worker is misusing drugs:

Disposing of Contaminated Waste

When drug abuse is taking place in a venue, there will be evidence and signs that you should be aware of:

Follow all procedures and precautions to ensure your own and others health and safety.

Health and Safety Issues

When dealing with the items listed above, there is a great danger of HIV/AIDS and other infection, especially with things such as syringes and needles. It is therefore extremely important that the door supervisor takes every precaution when dealing with drugs and drug-users.

Steps to follow:

The prime objective for the door supervisor is to ensure that the threat of trouble within the venue is minimised. Searches carried out correctly will act as an extra deterrent. If people are aware that searches are taking place prior to entering the venue, they are less likely to try and smuggle drugs and other illegal and offensive items in. It will also deter criminal elements from frequenting the venue.

It is now generally considered one of the prime tasks of door supervisors to help reduce the number of illegal drugs being brought into licensed premises. Proper search techniques and proper use of powers of arrest will go a long way towards this.

Conflict Management

Frontline staff may face work-related violence – This is particularly true for the private security staff due to the nature of the job.

Workplace violence

Violence against staff is defined as:

“Any incident in which a person is abused, threatened or assaulted in circumstances relating to their work”.

Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

Both employers and employees have a duty of care which is to take care of themselves and others who may be affected by their acts or omissions at work.

Employer’s duty of care includes:
Employees duty of care is to:
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999

This law adds more emphasis on what employers must do under the H&S Legislation and to carry out risk assessments.

Avoiding Conflict

Risk Assessment

Two major types of risk assessments

It is better to be proactive in our approach to risk assessment.

Threat assessment P.O.P
The two types of human response

Emotional Vs Rational

The 'Emotional' brain
The 'Rational' brain
Fight or flight
Choosing to fight

We increase the likelihood of someone choosing to fight when we:

What are the triggers?

People tend to be triggered into an angry reaction if they find themselves in some undesirable situation for example being ignored, patronised.

The type of triggers can include the following:

What are inhibitors?

Inhibitors are things that which prevent people from losing their temper. Not everyone gets angry in an undesirable situation.

Defusing Conflict

Defusing conflict can be found in the method of ‘The 4 A’s’.

Signalling non-aggression
Signs of escalation

Signs to watch for include:

Some helpful responses

Depending on the situation the following responses could be helpful in an escalating situation:

The common causes of conflict

Violence - Violence can be used to describe a serious physical attack or assault. It is an act where aggression can be directed towards objects and people.

Aggression - Aggression is an act or behaviour, usually associated with a feeling, anger or frustration. Usually intended to hurt someone physically or mentally. Aggression is displayed in many forms such as insults, spitting and gestures.

Types of aggression

Other types of aggression can include:

Resolving Conflict

How-to defuse high-risk conflict

It works because it acknowledges people’s feelings:


Following can help resolve a conflict situation:

High Risk Conflict

Contact and cover

Good cover position:

Team Strategies

This will enable the ‘cover’ to:


‘Switching’ is intervening between the customer and colleague to focus the customers attention on you:

Drawing Round

Drawing round also allows:

Exit Strategies

Passing the Baton:

Use of Force – Criminal Law Act 1967 (s3)

The use of force by anyone will be judged on two aspects by the police or the courts. These are:

Use of Force – Common Law

Common law recognizes that any person may use force as reasonable in the circumstances to

Reflecting and Learning

Incidents reviews should be used to learn and reflect on the causes of the incidents.

Following types of incidents should be reviewed:

Learning Cycle

The experiential learning cycles.

Contributing to Long Term Solutions and Strategies

‘Quick-fix’ solutions
Long term solutions

How To be a CCTV Operator

What is the purpose of CCTV?
Where can CCTV be found?

CCTV is everywhere and can be found in the following locations:

What are the advantages of CCTV?
What are the disadvantages of CCTV?
What are the main responsibilities of a CCTV Operator?
What is Confidentiality?

When applied to a CCTV setting, confidentiality can be described as:

What is the CCTV reporting structure?
Who is the owner of the CCTV system?

The owner of a CCTV system is the person who was responsible for putting it in place.

This is normally the person who decided to have it installed and was responsible for choosing how many cameras were needed etc.

When the system is designed and installed, the owner should have established

With the CCTV systems installed within the property, venue or premises, the CCTV systems should perform the follow:

What is the CCTV system code of practice?

It is the responsibility of the owner of the system to ensure that a Code of Practice is written in accordance with the Data Protection Act and BS7958 and available to anyone who requests it.

The Code of Practice shows how the system will operate in any given area.

The system is monitoring areas to which the public has access, therefore there will be a Code of Practice in force.

What is the code of practice contents?
Functional Checks of CCTV systems
Incident and spot monitors
What is the public sight code of practice?

By allowing the public to see the Code of Practice it should:

What is the CCTV Operator code of conduct?

To ensure the integrity of the system, operators must:

The following standards must be maintained in the CCTV Control Room:
SIA standards of behaviour

Should any CCTV operator be found to be breaching the standards of behaviour expected of them then any of the following actions could be taken:

What are assignment instructions?

Assignment Instructions are guidelines for operational procedures in the control room.

Sometimes also known as:

You will be required to read and sign your AI’s.

What are the assignment instructions content?
Shift handover and takeover

Details normally covered include:

Functional checks for CCTV equipment
CCTV transmission methods

Normally - 2 Options are available:

Incident and spot monitors
When to record?

How does the operator know when to record something?

As a general rule…

... then record it!

It’s better to record something and have it turn out to be nothing than miss something important.

Ensuring effectiveness
How to be proactive and reactive
Camera patrols

Full Patrols:

Random Patrols
What is effective patrolling?
What is the rotakin test standard?
Audit Trails
CCTV control room documents
Written Communication

Everything you write could be used as evidence in court, including:

Communication needs to be accurate, clear and brief.

Written Communication

Everything you write could be used as evidence in court, including:

Communication needs to be accurate, clear and brief.

Advantages of communication include:
Disadvantages of communication include:
CCTV Operatives must ensure the following:

Remember that copies of DVDs must have digital watermarks which ensures the authenticity of the DVD. If the DVD has been tampered with the watermark will fragment.

Why confidentiality is important

As a CCTV Operative It must be remembered that information obtained during the course of any CCTV work within a control room is strictly confidential. Remember, what happens in the control should stay in the control room.

All information gathered while working is subject to the Data Protection Act 1998 and should be considered confidential. You may have to sign a confidentiality agreement when commencing work.

Breaching this could lead to prosecution.

What is ABC communication?




Giving the wrong signals

It is important that the wrong signals are not given by such examples as:

Radio communication
Answering telephones

When answering the telephone, it’s important to carry out the following:

Who are customers?



What are security radios?
Security radio rules
How the control room should be

Your control room should be a sterile area.

Access may be restricted via:

What is the data protection act 1998?

Data normally means ‘information’. In our case, Data is classed as any information which can identify an individual.

The Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) gives individuals the right to apply for access to personal data relating to them - this is known as a "subject access request”.

Subject access procedure

If a subject access request is made, follow the procedures laid out in your Assignment Instructions.

Remember that this is the start of an Audit Trail, so everything you do from here on needs to be documented.

Subject access restrictions

Taken from the MI5 website:

Data Must Be:
Disclosure of images
Assessment period

Before installing and using CCTV and similar surveillance equipment, the purpose of said equipment must be established.

Common reasons for installing this are:

Data protection personnel

Data Controller – The person who (either alone or jointly, or in common with other persons) determines the purposes for which, and the manner in which any personal data are to be processed.

Data Processor – Any person (other than an employee of the data controller) who processes the personal data on behalf of the Data Controller. i.e.: If the manager is a 3rd party such as a security company employed by the DC to run the scheme, then the manager may be deemed a Data Processor.

Positioning of cameras
Quality of CCTV images
Right to a fair trial

CCTV operators could infringe this by producing misleading evidence, or hiding or deleting evidence when requested for it by the police. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law.

Right to respect for a private and family life

Everyone has the right to respect for his private & family life, his home and correspondence. There shall be no interference by a public authority (The State) unless there are sound legal reasons. These reasons could be national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country.

Regulation of investigatory powers act

This regulates surveillance by police and other agencies. Section 26 sets out what is Directed Surveillance. It is defined as:

Requests for forthcoming operations are authorized by Superintendents or above. Reasons to request use of the system could be:

Freedom of information act 2000

This act gives a general right of access to all types of recorded information held by public authorities such as:

The act gives applicants two related rights:


Police and criminal act evidence 1984
Criminal procedures and investigation act

Evidence is defined as ‘That which makes evident or manifest or which supplies proof’.

This means by which any fact or point in issue may be proved or disproved in a manner complying with the legal rules governing the subject.

1. Direct Evidence
2. Primary Evidence
3. Secondary Evidence
4. Circumstantial Evidence
5. Hearsay Evidence

Operators may well have to attend court to give evidence.

There are two different types of court:

CCTV Operators code of conduct

To ensure the integrity of the system, operators must:

What are crime and non-crime incidents?

Crime Incidents.

Non-Crime Incidents
What is theft?

The Theft Act (1968) describes Theft as:

Offences against the person act 1861
What is assault?

An attempt to offer, by force or violence to another to do bodily injury to another. An act that causes a person to himself fear immediate unlawful violence.

What is actual Bodily Harm?

To assault any person thereby occasioning actual bodily harm. ABH does not necessarily have to involve the breaking of the skin (though it normally does). If a blow is proven to be struck then a magistrate may infer that ABH has been caused.

What is wounding with Intent?

Where there is a deliberate intention on the part of the offender, by any means possible, to inflict serious injury and to cause such injury.

What is Unlawful Wounding?

This involves the unintentional serious injury to a person.

What is a crime risk area?

A crime risk area is one where statistics prove it more likely to have crimes committed there.

Such areas could be:

If any of these activities are detected then the police must be informed immediately.

Surveillance planning
How not to discriminate

CCTV operators should not discriminate against any particular group.

We are all influenced by:

However, we cannot let this prejudice our views of people who we monitor on CCTV.


A preconceived opinion based on little or no fact or an inflexible generalization.


Putting people into groups and judging them by that, even though it may be wrong.


Actions which are based on a prejudice with an unjust, unfair or negative action.

Types of behaviour to look out on CCTV



How to describe people
How to describe vehicles